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My quick thoughts, back stage, and rants as I try to Teach kids about the Web while learning how to help others build a better Web.


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Greg McVerry

@doubleloop thx I needed to take some time and organize my research on metacogntion. Some canonical bookmarks and my thinking over last few years

Greg McVerry

Greg McVerry

Greg McVerry

Greg McVerry

Greg McVerry

Greg McVerry

metacognition grew out of reading comprehension research.F lavell started thinking about thinking in 1978. Same time Vygotsky's work were first translated into English. Palisnscar and Brown combined this in reciprocal teaching

Greg McVerry

My Goal for Next Semester is to improve the quality and frequency of my feedback. Here is a concept map of my research.

My Goal for Next Semester is to improve the quality and frequency of my feedback. Here is a concept map of my research.

As instructors we have our greatest impact on learning through feedback (Ching et al., 2015). As teachers our feedback provides students with a “knowledge of results” (Flemin and Levine, 1978). When you communicate to students on how they have demonstrated growth following an assessment or task you allow them to self-reflect on progress, address lingering misconceptions, and set new learning goals (Black & William, 2016; Price, 1997).

We know feedback drives learning (Azevedo & Bernard, 1995; Hattie, 2011; Shute, 2007). In it’s most basic form feedback should, “(a) verify whether the student’s answer is right or wrong and (b) provide information to the learner about the correct response” (Shute, 2007, p.8). Yet we also know proving students with positive an actionable feedback beyond their answer extends learning by requiring metacognition, or making the student think about how they think (Swan, 1983). This type of goal directed feedback improves motivation to learn (Dempsey et al., 1993) and encourages a Growth Mindset (Dweck ,1986).

In our online classes you need to not only ensure your feedback is effective, but you need to also help students to use the feedback. Luckily there are new technological tools that increase the efficacy and efficiency of a well designed feedback loop (Gee, 2017).

Effective feedback

Feedback improves learning (Dweck, 2007; Hattie, 2011) and in our online classes the growth statements we give to students effect both motivation and community (Northrup, 2011).If students feel you do not read your posts or that their work is not valued they will not utilize the information for personal growth. As teachers we need to ensure we provide timely and actionable, feedback.


Frequent and immediate feedback has the greatest effect on learning (Fink 2013). When examining the effect sizes of automated quizzes those that provide students feedback immediately have shown to improve learning when compared to delayed feedback (Northrup, 2011). The same is true of your written feedback. The sooner students get feedback the sooner they can make connections to content and develop personal learning goals. In fact getting frequent feedback early in the first two weeks helps to ensure students excel in your class (Conrad & Donalson, 2012; Rovai, 2002)


Feedback also needs to be targeted, which means it is focused on improvement driven from your stated learning objectives. Students then use the information in a process centered (Coffied et al., 2014) way to learn through reflection. By having students use growth statements as they think about revisions, goals and progress they make knowledge gains toward your stated learning objectives.


Finally students need to use feedback. Therefore as an instructor you must make your growth statements actionable. This means focusing language on goals and not the students (Shute, 2007). The student did not “miss a question” they did not demonstrate mastery of the concept. Explain to the students what they need to do in order to succeed next time. Emphasize the goal for the next time they need to apply the concept or allow revision (Duncan, 2007).

Positive Language

The positive language of your growth statements matter (Dweck, 2007). Research has consistently found non-punitive and positive messages lead to learning gains. In fact without you providing praise to how students are progressing and not including steps they can take to meet goal or take their learning to the next level students may not know they are growing (Coffield, et a., 2014)

Greg McVerry

Updates Outline/Notes for Agentive Apprenticeship Article

in apprenticeship learning target skills are not only continually in use by skilled practioners, but are instrumental in completing meangingful taskslearning of skills and knowledge

2 min read

in apprenticeship learning target skills are not only continually in use by skilled practioners, but are instrumental in completing meangingful tasks

learning of skills and knowledge embedded in social and functional context 456

The biggest difference between agentive apprenticships and cognitive apprenticeship is the focus on growing the network and spaces of learning rather than focusing solely on strategy use by the individual learner.

cognitive apprenticeships:
-"designed to teach the process experts use to handle complex tasks p. 457"

agentive apprenticeships
-designed to support community goals through learner growth

cogntivie apprenticeship
-learning through guided experienced

agentive appretniceship
-learning through a networked exeperience

cogntive apprenticeship
-require extensive techniques to encourage the development of self correction and monitoring skills 458

agentive apprenticeship
-these skills are encouraged, documented, and parsed using blogging and social media tools

Network Technologies and Abstracted Replay
-chat rooms
Cognitive Apprenticeship was so much about how to deliver feedback. (see the tehcnical reports from Brown, Collins, Dugiuid) and to encourage metacognitive stretgy use. Even here the metacognition was usually focused on outcome driven feedback.

If you look at you can see how these feedback loops emerge.

For these we utlized Gee's Circuit of Reflective Inquiry to operationalize how feedback occurs in agentive apprenticeship.

Increasingly times this feedback is provided my non human actors. In the IndieWeb community for example participants use parsers to check to see if their websites are built correctly. In these feedback loops are strengthened with a wide network of alumni and enthusiasts who may coem across a post by  a student after it was shared by a bot.

Sequencing in Agentive Apprenticeship
Global before local skills

Sociology of Learning in Agentive Apprenticeship
Situated Learning
Culture of Expert Practice
Intrinsic Motivation
Exploiting Cooperation
Exploiting Competition

Outline Draft

Greg McVerry

The cogsci branches that dominated reading instruction (and still much of it today) focus on declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge. Metacognition didn't really become a thing until 1978 so its easy to see how early cognitive apprenticeship work doesn't get into it


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